.

The needs for safety, belonging, love relations and for respect can be satisfied only by other people, i.e., only from outside the person.

This means considerable dependence on the environment.

A person in this dependent position cannot really be said to be governing himself, or in control of his own fate. He must be beholden to the sources of supply of needed gratifications.

Their wishes, their whims, their rules and laws govern him and must be appeased lest he jeopardize his sources of supply. He must be, to an extent, “other-directed,” and must be sensitive to other people’s approval, affection and good will.

This is the same as saying that he must adapt and adjust by being flexible and responsive and by changing himself to fit the external situation.

He is the dependent variable; the environment is the fixed, independent variable.

Toward a Psychology of Being

Abraham Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.

Maslow was a psychology professor at Alliant International University, Brandeis University, Brooklyn College, New School for Social Research, and Columbia University.

He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a „bag of symptoms“.

A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Maslow as the tenth most cited psychologist of the 20th century.